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The final exam is comprehensive and covers all topics listed by the national registry. The final exam given by your EMT instructors are designed to test the same concepts as the state and national exams for certification. Below is an outline of the important concepts you must know as a bare minimum both for your final exam and for your certification. Everything in this outline can be found in the notes on this website - review them if you are not sure about any particular concept.

Module 1: Preparatory

  • BSI scene safe - as an EMT, your first and foremost priority is the safety of yourself and your crew.
  • Know about your duty to act and what constitutes as abandonment.
  • Memorize the anatomy of the heart.
  • Know the body positions like supine, Trendelenburg, etc.
  • Know the anatomical planes, such as anterior, posterior, etc.
  • Memorize your vital signs - what is considered normal and what is not.

Module 2: Airway

  • Learn what is considered inadequate breathing. For example, the breathing may be fast, but shallow, and therefore is inadequate.
  • Every time you have inadequate breathing, you need PPV.
  • As an EMT, you can safely administer oxygen to any patient.
  • Know your suctioning techniques - how long you can suction for, how deep you can go, and suction on your way out.

Module 3: Patient assessment

  • Completely memorize the steps of patient assessment and the order they are in.
  • Know what to do during each step of patient assessment.
  • Be aware that at any point during patient assessment, if you spot a problem with the ABCs, immediately stop and intervene.
  • Know that the way to "cover you behind" is to document thoroughly.

Module 4: Medical/behavioral emergencies and Ob/Gyn

  • Learn your signs and symptoms.
  • Know your interventions.
  • Know what medications you are allowed to administer as an EMT.
  • Know the indications and contra-indications. For example, nitro can't be given if blood pressure is too low. Also, it may seem dumb, but for anything given orally, you
  • need to make sure the patient can swallow. If the patient is unresponsive, you can't give anything orally.
  • Be aware that any female with abdominal pain is a suspect for ectopic pregnancy - a true emergency that requires immediate transportation.
  • Review how to deliver a baby, and how to care for the ABCs. For example, suction before stimulating the newborn and keeping the baby warm and dry.

Module 5: Trauma

  • Again, realize that you're priority (other than your own safety) is the ABCs. If you have a broken arm and a blocked airway, make sure you treat the airway first.
  • Hold C-spine if spinal injury is suspected.
  • Know how to stop bleeds - direct pressure, elevation, pressure points.
  • Know how to splint - PMS before, immobilization above and below, PMS after.
  • Review the signs of shock - cool and clammy skin, thready pulse.
  • Review the treatment for shock - Trendelenburg and oxygen.

Module 6: Infants and children

  • Review the differences between kids and adults. For example, no chest rise in kids does not indicate that they are in respiratory distress because they use their stomach to breath. On the other hand, if they have nasal flaring, they're in distress.
  • Memorize the differences in normal vital signs between kids and adults.
  • Know your signs and symptoms for infants and children.

Module 7: Operations

  • Review the facts. For example, police escort actually makes transportation dangerous.
  • Review MCI. For example, on the scene of an MCI, if someone is not breathing even when you open the airway, move on to the next patient.
  • Know how to triage.

Module 8: Advanced airway

  • Know how to intubate.
  • Review the signs that indicate a successful intubation.
  • Be aware that you can only spend 30 seconds attempting to intubate before you must ventilate the patient for 2 minutes.